Guelder Rose – Its Food, Medicine and Other Uses


Guelder rose is traditionally used to treat cramp, hence the plant’s common names ‘crampbark’ or ‘crampbush’.1

Scientific Name

Viburnum opulus.

Family

Viburnaceae.

Botanical Description

Guelder rose bears fertile flowers that are pinkish-white in the bud and produce red, glossy drupes, while the sterile outer flowers are white, large and plate-like. The stem is slender and the leaves are divided into three or five broad angular lobes, sometimes toothed and turning purple in autumn.

Status

Perennial. Native.

Habitat and Distribution

Guelder rose prefers hedgerows, copses, scrubs, woodland edges, riverbanks, and lakeshores. Native to Britain, Ireland, Europe, Russia-Asia; extending even into Arctic regions; naturalised in America.

Parts Used For Food

Fruit.

Harvest Time

A deciduous shrub, flowering in midsummer with fruits appearing in late summer.
Guelder Rose Notebook

Food Uses of Guelder Rose

The fruits of guelder rose have been eaten in traditional dishes in parts of Europe and in Russia.

For example, in Russia, the fruits were eaten fresh, added to porridge, baked, made into jams, jellies, marmalades, pastes, mousse, pie fillings, vinegar and condiments.

The fruits were also used as a substitute for tea or coffee.2

Guelder Rose Recipes

Herbal Medicine Uses of Guelder Rose

The bark of guelder rose is antispasmodic and sedative.3 It has been used by women to calm menstrual cramps for hundreds of years, but there are no clinical trials about its use.

Guelder rose bark has been used to treat very painful menstrual flows (such as dysmenorrhoea), endometriosis (a painful condition when pieces of the endometrium grow outside the uterus in the pelvis or abdominal wall), or fibroids.

The plant chemistry contains viopudial, a compound that relaxes smooth muscle and lowers blood pressure.4

While the plant has had many other uses in herbal medicine, its primary use is as a muscle relaxant. To this end, the bark can also be used to relieve hiccups, and pain and spasms in muscles, stomach and intestines.4

Other Uses

The guelder rose is often grown in gardens as an ornamental plant. In Ireland, the variety that features large, white, sterile flowers, ‘Snowball Tree’, is particularly popular.5

Cautions

Some sources suggest that guelder rose is toxic, particularly when the berries are eaten in excess, causing stomach upsets or worse – symptoms of poisoning.5

However, there is no conclusive opinion and few data on the plant’s toxicity. Seek medical advice before use. The herb is best avoided during pregnancy and when breastfeeding.

References

  1. Lang, DC. The Complete Book of British Berries. Threshold Books.
  2. Shikov et al. Traditional and Current Food Use of Wild Plants Listed in the Russian Pharmacopoeia. Frontiers in pharmacology.
  3. Usher, G. A dictionary of plants used by man. Sl: Constable. London, 1974.
  4. Paine, A. The healing power of Celtic plants. John Hunt Publishing. UK, 2006.
  5. Jackson, PW. Ireland’s Generous Nature. The Past and Present Uses of Wild Plants in Ireland. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. St Louis, Missouri, 2014.

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